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Tuesday, 20 May 2014

Alexandria::Ancient City in Egypt_Part_6_Last

Culture

Libraries



 The Bibliotheca Alexandrina

The Royal Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was once the largest library in the world. It is generally thought to have been founded at the beginning of the 3rd century BCE, during the reign of Ptolemy II of Egypt. It was likely created after his father had built what would become the first part of the Library complex, the temple of the Muses—the Museion, Greek Μουσείον (from which the modern English word museum is derived).
It has been reasonably established that the Library, or parts of the collection, were destroyed by fire on a number of occasions (library fires were common and replacement of handwritten manuscripts was very difficult, expensive, and time-consuming). To this day the details of the destruction (or destructions) remain a lively source of controversy. The Bibliotheca Alexandrina was inaugurated in 2003 near the site of the old Library.

Theaters


The Alexandria National Museum
  • Alexandria Opera House, where Classical Music, Arabic Music, Opera and Ballet are performed.

Museums

  • Alexandria Aquarium
  • The Alexandria National Museum
  • Graeco-Roman Museum
  •  The Graeco-Roman Museum
  •  Royal Jewelry Museum
  •  The Museum of Fine Arts
  •  The Cavafy Museum
 The Alexandria National Museum was inaugurated 31 December 2003. It is located in a restored Italian style palace in Tariq Al-Horreya Street (former Rue Fouad), near the center of the city. It contains about 1,800 artifacts that narrate the story of Alexandria and Egypt. Most of these pieces came from other Egyptian museums.
The museum is housed in the old Al-Saad Bassili Pasha Palace, who was one of the wealthiest wood merchants in Alexandria. Construction on the site was first undertaken in 1926.
Related words
 al-iskandariyya (الإسكندرية) (noun) (in Literary Arabic): Refers to the city of "Alexandria", used in formal texts and speech. Its Egyptian Arabic equivalent is Eskendereyya (إسكندرية), though they have the same spelling when written in Arabic text, apart from the definitive article al-.
 "Alex" (noun): Natives of metropolitan areas who have a certain knowledge of English and/or French refer to Alexandria as "Alex", especially informally.
 Eskandarāni (إسكندرانى, pronounced [eskɑndɑˈɾɑːni]): The adjectival form in Egyptian Arabic, meaning "from Alexandria" or "native Alexandrian" (masc.). The feminine form and the plural form are Eskandaraneyya (إسكندرانية, pronounced [eskɑndɑɾɑˈnejjæ]). Its equivalent in Literary Arabic is iskandarī (إسكندرى) (masc.), or sakandarī (سكندرى) (masc.), sakandariyya (سكندرية) (fem.), plural iskandariyyūn / iskandariyyīn (إسكندريون ‎/ إسكندريين) or sakandariyyūn / sakandariyyīn (سكندريون ‎/ سكندريين), feminine plural is sakandariyyāt (سكندريات).
Sports
Alexandria Stadium
The main sport that interests Alexandrians is football, as is the case in the rest of Egypt and Africa. Alexandria Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Alexandria, Egypt. It is currently used mostly for football matches, and was used for the 2006 African Cup of Nations. The stadium is the oldest stadium in Egypt and Africa, being built in 1929. The stadium holds 20,000 people. Alexandria was one of three cities that participated in hosting the African Cup of Nations in January 2006, which Egypt won. Sea sports such as surfing, jet-skiing and water polo are practiced on a lower scale. The Skateboarding culture in Egypt started in this city.
Alexandria has four stadiums:
  •  Borg El Arab Stadium
  •  Harras El-Hedoud Stadium
  •  Alexandria Stadium
  •  El-Krom Stadium
Other less popular sports like tennis and squash are usually played in private social and sports clubs, like:
  •  Alexandria Sporting Club - in "Sporting"
  •  Alexandria Country club
  •  El-Ittihad El-Iskandary Club
  •  El-Olympi Club
  •  Koroum Club
  •  Haras El Hodood Club
  •  Lagoon Resort Courts
  •  Acacia Country Club
  •  Smouha SC - in "Smouha"
Literature
Monument of the Unknown Navy Soldier
Two writers loom large over the modern literature of Alexandria: C.P. Cavafy, the Alexandria-born Greek poet, and the Indian-born Briton Lawrence Durrell, author of The Alexandria Quartet. Cavafy incorporated Greek history and mythology and his homosexuality into his poetry. Durrell used the cosmopolitan city as a landscape to explore human desires. Of Arabic novels set in Alexandria, Naguib Mahfouz's Miramar is the best known. In the 2000s, writers such as Jon Courtenay Grimwood, Ki Longfellow, and Keith Miller have used Alexandria as a setting for speculative fiction.
 Novels
 Unreal City (1952) by Robert Liddell.
 Academic Year (1955, set in late 1940s) by D.J. Enright.
 The Alexandria Quartet (1957–60, set in 1930s) by Lawrence Durrell.
 The Alexandria Rhapsody (2011) by George Leonardos
 The Bat (part of the Drifting Cities trilogy) (1965, set in 1943-44) by Stratis Tsirkas.
 Miramar (1967) by Naguib Mahfouz.
 The Danger Tree (1977, set in 1942, partly in Alexandria) by Olivia Manning.
 The Beacon at Alexandria (1986, set in 4th century) by Gillian Bradshaw.
 No Digas Que Fue Un Sueño (Don't Say It Was A Dream) (1986, Cleopatra and Mark Anthony) by Terenci Moix.
 City of Saffron (tr. 1989, set in 1930s) by Edwar Al-Kharrat.
 Girls of Alexandria (tr. 1993, set in 1930s and '40s) by Edwar Al-Kharrat.
 The Alexandria Semaphore (1994) by Robert Solé.
 The House over the Catacombs (1993) and the Song of the Soul (1997) by George Leonardos.
 No One Sleeps in Alexandria (1996, set during World War II) by Ibrahim Abdel Meguid.
 Pashazade (2001) alternate history by Jon Courtenay Grimwood.
 The Alexander Cipher (2007) by Will Adams.
 Flow Down Like Silver, Hypatia of Alexandria (2009) by Ki Longfellow.
 The Book on Fire (2009, urban fantasy) by Keith Miller.
 Alexandria (2009, historical crime, set in AD77) by Lindsey Davis.
 "La lente découverte de l'étrangeté" (novel), 2002, by Victor Teboul.
 History
 Alexandria: A History and a Guide (1922; numerous reprints) by E.M. Forster.
 Alexandria: City of Memory (Yale University Press, 2004) by Michael Haag.
 Vintage Alexandria: Photographs of the City 1860-1960 (The American University in Cairo Press, 2008) by Michael Haag.
 Memoirs
 Out of Egypt (1994; fictionalised description of family history in Alexandria) by André Aciman.
 Farewell to Alexandria (tr. 2004) Harry E. Tzalas.
 Game
 Final Fantasy IX (PSX) Alexandria is a major city-state in this game.
Songs
 Songs in French:
 Alexandrie by Georges Moustaki.
 Alexandrie, Alexandra by Claude François.
 Songs in Greek:
 Alexandria by Yannis Kotsiras.
 Songs in Arabic:
 Shat Eskendereya by Fairouz.
 been shateen we maya by Mohamed Kandil.
 Ahsan Nas by Dalida.
 Leil Eskendereya by Moustafa Amar.
 Ya Wad Ya Eskandarany by Moustafa Amar.
 Ya Eskendereya by Mohamed Mounir (lyrics by Ahmed Fouad Negm).
 Ayouh by Natasha
 Songs in English:
 Alexandria by Kamelot
 Alexandra Leaving by Leonard Cohen, based on a poem by Constantine P. Cavafy.
 Songs in other languages:
 Ya Mustafa reproduced Dario Moreno, Bob Azzam and many others - lyrics in Arabic, French and Italian
Tourism
Alexandria is a main summer resort and tourist attraction, due to its public and private beaches and ancient history and Museums, especially the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, based on reviving the ancient Library of Alexandria.


 Graeco-Roman Museum

 Alexandria Stadium

Monument of the Unknown Navy Soldier




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